Contraception Methods

Contraception Methods

Methods used by people to prevent pregnancy from taking place are called contraceptive methods.

There are a number of methods available which people can and actually do use to achieve contraception. These methods are divided into different categories on the basis of the way in which they prevent pregnancy.

Some of the methods of contraception are as follows:

Barrier Method

These methods prevent the male and female parts from meeting each other properly, thereby preventing pregnancy.

Mentioned below are examples of such methods:

· Male Condom
· Female Condom
· Diaphragm

These methods of contraception are the least effective of all methods of contraception. Research tells us that such methods of contraception are effective 75-90% of the times.

The table below shows the duration of effectiveness, action and side effects of each of the methods contraception:

Barrier Methods of Contraception
Methods Action Side effects
Male condoms Inhibits sperm penetration allergy to latex
Female condom Inhibits sperm penetration Difficult to use
Diaphragm A  barrier Difficult to use

Hormonal Method

These methods disturb the normal processes of hormones in the body of females, thereby preventing pregnancy.

Mentioned below are examples of such methods:

· Oral Contraceptive Pills also known as OCP’s
· Mini-pills, which are similar to OCP’s in function
· The Hormonal Patch
· The Injection also known as the Depo- Injection
· The Hormonal Ring

These methods of contraception are the very effective. Research tells us that such methods of contraception are effective 90-95% of the times.

The table below shows the duration of effectiveness, action and side effects of each of the methods contraception:

Hormonal Methods of Contraception
Method Efficacy Action Side effects
Depo- provera injection 3 months Promotes menses Weight gain,

irregular bleeding

The patch

(ortho Evra)

A week Makes environment for menses Clotting of blood (thromboembolism) in smokers & age over 35 yrs
The ring (Nuvaring) Safe to use continuous Suitable environment for menses Discharge

spotting

*OCPs

(hormones combo)

Continuous use Suppress ovulation Daily compliance
Minipills

(one hormone)

Continuous use Thickens cervical mucus Strict daily timings

Device Method

These methods use devices to disturb the internal processes which occur inside the female body, thereby preventing pregnancy.

Mentioned below are examples of such methods:

· Implants
· Mirena IUD- Intrauterine Device
· Copper IUD-Intrauterine Device

These methods of contraception are the most effective compared to other methods of contraception. Research tells us that such methods of contraception are over 98% effective.

The table below shows the duration of effectiveness, action and side effects of each of the methods contraception:

Device Methods of Contraception
Method Duration Action Side effects
Implants 3 years Stops ovulation Weight gain,

Irregular periods

*IUD

(Mirena)

5 years Causes inflammation of cervix Spotting,

Acne

Uterine rupture

Copper T 10 years Causes inflammation of cervix & sperm killing effect Cramps,

bleeding

*IUD-intrauterine device

Surgical Method

These methods make use of surgery/operation to prevent pregnancy.

These methods are considered irreversible.

Mentioned below are examples of such methods:

· Tubal Ligation: a surgery performed on females
· Vasectomy: a surgery performed on males

The table below shows the duration of effectiveness, action and side effects of each of the methods contraception:

Surgical Methods of Contraception
Method Duration Action Side effects
Surgery

(ligation, vasectomy)

Permanent  

—–

Ligation is irreversible

Ectopic pregnancy

Other Methods of Contraception

Less Effective Contraception Methods (Effective > 65-75%)

Other Methods
Method Side effects
Withdrawal No protection against STDs*
Spermicide Gel No protection against STDs*

*sexually transmitted diseases